Updated 5/31/15

anchialine pool/pond – “The word ‘anchialine’ (AN-key-ah-lin) comes from a Greek word meaning ‘near the sea.’ These typically small pools, which form in limestone or volcanic rock, are located throughout the world but are most common in the Hawaiian Islands and on Mexico’s Yucatán Peninsula. Anchialine pools have their own unique ecosystems populated by tiny and often rare species of crustaceans, fish, and eels. Among these species is Hawaii’s legendary red shrimp, the ʻōpaeʻula…. Water levels in the pools can fluctuate in response to ocean tides. Due to their subterranean connection to the ocean, anchialine surface waters are often brackish and become more saline (salty) with increasing depth…. More than half of the world’s known anchialine pools are found in the Hawaiian Islands” (“What Is an Anchialine Pool?” National Ocean Service, 31 Jan. 2014, NOAA, accessed 31 May 2015).

hypogeal / epigeal – ʻōpaeʻula occupy both hypogeal (subterranean) and epigeal (surface) anchialine waters…. It reproduces in the subterranean portion of the habitat. (Wikipedia, Julie H. Bailey-Brock & Richard E. Brock [1993]. “Feeding, reproduction, and sense organs of the Hawaiian anchialine shrimp Halocaridina rubra [Atyidae]”. Pacific Science 47 [4]: 338–355.)

ʻōpaeʻula – “Small endemic red shrimp (Halocaridina [rubra] and others) called ʻōpaeʻula” (“Anchialine Pools,” Hawaiian High Islands Ecoregion, 5 Aug. 2012, The Nature Conservancy, accessed 31 May 2015).

pereiopods – “primarily walking legs and are also used for gathering food…. The pereiopods bear the sexual organs, which are the third pereiopod in the female and the fifth pereiopod in the male. Each appendage from the second maxilla to the fifth pereiopod also bears a gill” (Wikipedia).

zoea (plural zoeae) – “any of the free-swimming larva of certain crustaceans, as the crab, having rudimentary legs and a spiny carapace” (Dictionary.com).

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